The article summarizes original and literary data on different aspects of studying Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenberg) Reimann et Lewin 1964 in two biotopes – phytoplankton and microphytobenthos – of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, and the Sea of Japan for the period from 1976 to 2016. The aim of the work is to present the results of the study mainly of own data on the morphology, systematics and ecology of C. closterium in different seas and under cultivation in the laboratory. Information on the history of the species origin and its nomenclature changes is given. C. closterium belongs to the phylum Bacillariophyta, class Bacillariophyceae, order Bacillariales Hendey 1937, family Bacillariaceae Ehrenb. 1831, genus Cylindrotheca Rabenhorst 1859 emend. Reim. et Lewin 1964. This benthoplanktonic species occurs in the plankton, in littoral and sublittoral zones of the seas. The species is marine and brackish-water; it is a cosmopolite common in different geographical zones of the World Ocean. The results of studying alga by various methods under natural and experimental conditions in light and transmission electron microscopes of C. Zeiss LIBRA-120 are presented. The quantitative data of C. closterium were determined by direct counting of the cells in the Goryaev’ camera (V = 0.9 mm³) in light microscopes BIOLAM L-212, C. Zeiss Axioskop 40 with the program AxioVision Rel. 4.6 at 10×40, 10×100, and Olympus BX41 (Tokyo, Japan) with lenses UPLanF140× and 100×1/30 oil immersion. Cultivation of C. closterium was carried out in the cumulative mode on the nutrient medium F, volume of 1 L under light intensity of 13.7 klx and temperature of +20…+21 °C. Morphology data of this species from different seas were obtained. The average cell sizes of C. closterium are: 25–260 µm length, 1.5–8 µm width; 12–25 fibulae in 10 µm. The results of cultivation in the laboratory conditions showed that the average cell sizes reached 148.17 µm (length) and 8 µm (width) at the temperature of +19…+20 °C and light intensity of 13 klx; length of cells reached 162.12 µm in the exponential phase of growth and 172.07 µm – in the stationary phase. C. closterium has an important practical significance as a source of fucoxanthin, since this alga is intensively cultivated for production of biologically active substances. Our experimental data showed that during laboratory cultivation the fucoxanthin concentration in a diatom biomass can reach 11 mg·g-1 of dry mass. The new data obtained are relevant and important; they can be used in different fields of science and medicine. The seasonal dynamics of population abundance of C. closterium in different ecotopes (epizoon of invertebrates and their food spectra, epiphyton of bottom vegetation, periphyton of the experimental and anthropogenic substrates of the different seas) is presented for the first time. The maximum abundance of the species population (65.6·10³ cells·cm-2) was registered in the epizoon of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. in March at the water temperature of +7.7 °C at a depth of 2.5 m in the Black Sea. The maximum abundance was registered in the epiphyton of green algae (896·10³ cells·cm-2) and in the periphyton of asbestos plates (728·10³ cells·cm-2) in August at the water temperature of +24.5 °C in the Sea of Japan. The abundance dynamics of C. closterium natural populations in the local habitats changed depending on the season, the depth, and the type of substrate. The similarities and differences in the distribution of C. closterium in the sea microphytobenthos are discussed.
Balycheva D. S. Species composition, structure and function characteristics of microalgae of antropogenic substrates periphyton in the Crimean coast of the Black Sea. PhD thesis. Sevastopol, 2014, 24 p. (in Russ.)
Bondarenko A. V., Ryabushko L. I. Diatoms of the benthos of the Crimean coast of the Sea of Azov. In: Modern Problems of Algology : proceedings of the International Science Conference and the VII School for Marine Biology, Rostov-on-Don, 9–13 June, 2008. Rostov-on-Don: SSC RAS, 2008, pp. 61–63. (in Russ.)
Brandini F. P., de Silva E. T., Pellizari F. M., Fonseca A. L., Fernandes L. F. Production and biomass accumulation of periphytic diatoms growing on glass slides during a 1-year cycle in a subtropical estuarine environment (Bay of Paranagua, southern Brazil). Marine Biology, 2001, vol. 138, iss. 1, pp. 163–171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270000427
Burckle L. H. Diatom distribution in the Weddell gyre region during late winter. Micropaleontology, 1987, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 177–184. https://doi.org/10.2307/1485492
Cortés A. R., Miranda N. P. Composición, abundancia y distribución del fitoplancton del Estero Urias, Sin. México. IV periodo de invierno (1980). Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología, 1985, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 123–133.
Crosby L. N., Wood E. J. F. Studies on Australian and New Zealand diatoms. II. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 1959, vol. 86, no. 1–2, pp. 1–58.
De Felice D. R., Lynts G. W. Benthic marine diatom associations: Upper Florida Bay (Florida) and associated sounds. Journal of Phycology, 1978, vol. 14, iss. 1, pp. 21–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.1978.tb00627.x
Gammone M. A., D’Orazio N. Anti-obesity activity of the marine carotenoid fucoxanthin. Marine Drugs, 2015, vol. 13, iss. 4, pp. 2196–2214. https://doi.org/10.3390/md13042196
Guiry M. D., Guiry G. M. AlgaeBase. Galway: National University of Ireland, 2018. URL: http://www.algaebase.org [accessed 2019.02.20].
Guslyakov N. E., Zakordonec O. A., Gerasimuk V. P. Atlas diatomovykh vodoroslei bentosa severo-zapadnoi chasti Chernogo morya i prilegayushchikh vodoemov. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1992, 112 p. (in Russ.)
Kiselev I. A. Sostav i rasprostranenie fitoplanktona v ust’e reki Amur. Issledovaniya morei SSSR. Leningrad: Gidrologicheskii institut, 1931, vol. 14, 116 p. (in Russ.)
Kiselev I. A. Sostav i periodichnost’ fitoplanktona v zalive Patrokl Yaponskogo morya. Issledovaniya morei SSSR. Leningrad: Gidrologicheskii institut, 1935, vol. 22, pp. 82–118. (in Russ.)
Konovalova G. V., Orlova T. Yu., Pautova L. A. Atlas fitoplanktona Yaponskogo morya. Vladivostok: Nauka, 1984, 160 p. (in Russ.)
Maltsev V. N., Klyuchnikov A. V. O massovoi gibeli ryb u krymskogo poberezh’ya Azovskogo morya. Veterinarnaya meditsina, 2004, vol. 84, pp. 457–463. (in Russ.)
Mereschkowsky C. S. A list of California diatoms. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Including Zoology, Botany and Geology, 1901, vol. 7, no. 39–42, pp. 292–300; 474–480; 505–520.
Morozova-Vodyanitskaya N. V. Fitoplankton Chernogo morya. Ch. 1. Fitoplankton v raione Sevastopolya i obshchii obzor fitoplanktona Chernogo morya. Trudy Sevastopol’skoi biologicheskoi stantsii AN SSSR, 1948, vol. 6, pp. 39–172. (in Russ.)
Munda I. M. Seasonal fouling by diatoms on artificial substrata at different depths near Piran (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic). Acta Adriatica, 2005, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 137–157.
Nesterova D. A. Water bloom in the north-western part of the Black Sea (Review). Al’gologiya, 2001, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 502–513. (in Russ.)
Nikolaev V. A. Diatomovye vodorosli bentosa zaliva Pos’et Yaponskogo morya. [dissertation]. Leningrad, 1970, 227 p. (in Russ.)
Peng J., Yuan J.-P., Wu C., Wan G. J. Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: Metabolism and bioactivities relevant to human health. Marine Drugs, 2011, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1806–1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9101806
Pitsyk G. K. O kachestvennom sostave fitoplanktona Azovskogo morya. Trudy Sevastopol’skoi biologicheskoi stantsii SSSR, 1963, vol. 14, pp. 71–89. (in Russ.)
Proshkina-Lavrenko A. I. Diatomovye vodorosli planktona Chernogo morya. Moscow ; Leningrad: Akademiya nauk SSSR, 1955, 222 p. (in Russ.)
Proshkina-Lavrenko A. I. Diatomovye vodorosli planktona Azovskogo morya. Moscow ; Leningrad: Akademiya nauk SSSR, 1963, 190 p. (in Russ.)
Proshkina-Lavrenko A. I. Diatomovye vodorosli bentosa Chernogo morya. Moscow ; Leningrad: Nauka, 1963, 244 p. (in Russ.)
Reimann B. E. F., Lewin J. C. The diatom genus Cylindrotheca Rabenhorst (with a reconsideration of Nitzschia closterium). Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1964, vol. 83, iss. 3, pp. 283–296. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2818.1964.tb00542.x
Round F. E., Crawford R. M., Mann D. G. The diatoms. Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1990, 747 p.
Ryabushko L. I. Diatoms of the upper sublittoral North-Western part of the Japan Sea. [dissertation]. Sevastopol, 1986, 244 p. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I. Potentially harmful microalgae of the Azov and Black sea basin / V. I. Ryabushko (Ed.). Sevastopol: EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2003, 288 p. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I. Microalgae of the Black Sea benthos (check-list, synonyms, comment) / A. V. Gaevskaya (Ed.). Sevastopol: EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2006, 143 p. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I. Microphytobenthos of the Black Sea / A. V. Gaevskaya (Ed.). Sevastopol: EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2013, 416 p. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) of Vostok Bay, the Sea of Japan. Biota and Environment of Nature Reserves in the Far East, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 4–17. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I. The state of knowledge microphytobenthos Argentine islands of Antarctica. Proceedings of the Belarusian State University, 2016, vol. 11 (1), pp. 337–350. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I., Begun A. A. Diatoms of the microphytobenthos of the Sea of Japan. In 2 vols. Sevastopol: PK “KIA”, 2016, vol. 2, 324 p. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I., Bondarenko A. V. Microalgae of the plankton and benthos of the Sea of Azov (check-list, synonyms, comment) / A. V. Gaevskaya (Ed.). Sevastopol: EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2011, 211 p. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko L. I., Zavalko S. E. Microphytocovering of artificial and natural substrates in the Black Sea. Botanicheskii zhurnal, 1992, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 33–39. (in Russ.)
Ryabushko V. I., Zheleznova S. N., Nekhoroshev M. V. Effect of nitrogen on the accumulation of fucoxanthin by diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehrenb.) Reimann et Lewin. International Journal on Algae, 2017, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 79–84. https://doi.org/10.1615/InterJAlgae.v19.i1.70
Satomi Y. Antitumor and cancer-preventative function of fucoxanthin: A marine carotenoid. Anticancer Research, 2017, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1557–1562.
Skvortzow B. W. Marine diatoms from the Kanazawa oyster experimental station of Japan. Philippine Journal of Science, 1932, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 119–126.
Smith W. F. A synopsis of the British Diatomaceae: with remarks on their structure, functions and distribution; and instructions for collecting and preserving specimens. In 2 vols. Vol. 1. London: Printed for Smith and Beck, Pub. by J. Van Voorst, 1853, 89 p. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10706