Bat L., Arici E., Öztekin A., Şahin F. Toxic metals in the warty crab in the southern Black Sea: Assessment of human health risk. Marine Biological Journal, 2020, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3-11. https://doi.org/10.21072/mbj.2020.05.1.01



The present study was performed to assess Cd, Pb, and Hg contaminations and human health risk in the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa (Forskål, 1775) in Akliman shores of Sinop Peninsula of the Black Sea. Heavy metals analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Among studied toxic metals, Pb had the highest mean concentration in E. verrucosa. The highest mean concentration of Pb (0.2 mg per kg of wet weight) was observed in male samples of the warty crab. However, higher concentrations of Cd and Hg (0.11 and 0.019 mg per kg of wet weight, respectively) were observed in females of E. verrucosa. The mean Cd values found in the warty crabs were higher in May and June than those in July and August. On the other hand, Pb values were recorded in July and August. The mean Hg values were not different between months except July and August for male samples of E. verrucosa. Foraging seasons of these crabs are different, which can lead to differences in prey size and ultimately metals intake. However, the results show that a toxic heavy metal concentration in edible tissues of crab from the southern Black Sea was within the permissible limits given by national and international food codices. Target hazard quotient (THQ) for each metal and hazard index (HI) were calculated to evaluate non-carcinogenic human health risks. Estimated THQs of Cd, Pb, and Hg suggest that these metals in the warty crab do not pose any apparent threat to humans, when the HI value is below the value of 1. The result of the analysis has shown that the warty crab E. verrucosa can be used as bioindicator as it contains variable levels of the metals observed. Since consumption is the main source of heavy metal intake by humans, monitoring studies are needed to protect public health and take preventive measures.


L. Bat

head of the department, Prof., D. Sc.


E. Arici

D. Sc.


A. Öztekin

PhD Student


F. Şahin

D. Sc.



Bat L., Öztekin A., Şahin F., Arıcı E., Özsandıkçı U. An overview of the Black Sea pollution in Turkey. Mediterranean Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, 2018, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 67–86.

Bat L. Pollution and fishing. In: Black Sea and Fishing Workshop Book / M. Sezgin, F. Şahin, U. Özsandıkçı (Eds). Sinop : University of Sinop, 2017, pp. 17–54. (in Turkish).

Bat L., Arıcı E. Heavy metal levels in fish, molluscs, and crustacea from Turkish seas and potential risk of human health. In: Handbook of Food Bioengineering. Vol. 13. Food Quality: Balancing Health and Disease / A. M. Holban, A. M. Grumezescu (Eds). [London] : Elsevier ; Academic Press, 2018, chap. 5, pp. 159–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811442-1.00005-5

Bat L., Öztekin H. C. Heavy metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Rapana venosa and Eriphia verrucosa from the Black Sea coasts of Turkey as bioindicators of pollution. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 2016, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 715–728.

Bat L., Şahin F., Öztekin A., Arici E., Yardim O. Assessment of Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn amounts in muscles of Cyprinus carpio from Karasu Stream, Sinop. Current Agriculture Research Journal, 2019, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 171–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CARJ.7.2.05

Bat L., Özkan E. Y. Heavy metal levels in sediment of the Turkish Black Sea coast. In: Oceanography and Coastal Informatics: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice, [S. l.] : [S. n.], 2019, chap. 4, pp. 86–107. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-7308-1.ch004

Bat L. A Study on Trace Element Levels in Some Organisms Collected From Upper-infralittoral of Sinop Peninsula. MSc thesis. Sinop : Ondokuz Mayıs University, 1992, 108 p. (in Turkish).

Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. 19 Dec., 2006. URL: https://openlaws.com/detail/b61d36b4-4f02-4383-b65f-d0438b9ddd96/en/SINGLE (accessed 25.10.2019).

Durmus M., Ayas D., Aydin M., Kosker A. R., Ucar Y., Ozogul Y. The effects of sex and seasonality on the metal levels of warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) in the Black Sea. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 2018, vol. 27, iss. 6, pp. 749–758. https://doi.org/10.1080/10498850.2018.1485196

Harmanescu M., Alda L. M., Bordean D. M., Gogoasa I., Gergen I. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania. Chemistry Central Journal, 2011, vol. 5, article no. 64 (10 p.). https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-5-64

Khan S., Cao Q., Zheng Y. M., Huang Y. Z., Zhu Y. G. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution, 2008, vol. 152, iss. 3, pp. 686–692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056

Mulayim A., Balkis H. Toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg) levels in Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775), and sediment samples from the Black Sea littoral (Thrace, Turkey). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2015, vol. 95, iss. 1, pp. 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.016

Directive 2008/56/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June, 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union, 2008, L 164, pp. 19–40.

Öztürk M., Bat L. Heavy metal levels in some edible organisms from Sinop coast of the Black Sea. EÜ Fen Fakültesi Dergisi, 1994, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 177–186. (in Turkish).

Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures : Risk assessment forum technical panel / U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC : National Center for Environmental Assessment, 2000, [209 p.]. (EPA/630/R00/002).

Toxicological Profile for Lead : Draft for Public Comment. May, 2019 / U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. URL: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp13.pdf (accessed 25.10.2019).

TUIK, Turkish Fishery Statistics, 2019 : [site]. URL: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/ (accessed 25.10.2019).

Turkish Food Codex. Official Gazette of Republic of Turkey. Notifications about determination of the maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs of Turkish Food Codex, 2002. (Notification no.: 2002/63), iss. 24885. (in Turkish).

Turkish Food Codex. Official Gazette of Republic of Turkey. Notifications changes to the maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, 2009. (Notification no.: 2009/22), iss. 27143 (in Turkish).

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System. 2018 : [site]. URL: https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levels-rsls-generic-tables (accessed 25.10.2019).

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency IRIS, Lead. Integrated Risk Information System. Washington, DC, 2005 : [site]. URL: http://www.epa.gov/iris/ (accessed 25.10.2019).



Download data is not yet available.