Andreyeva A. Y., Kladchenko E. S., Gostyukhina O. L. Effect of hypoxia on immune system of bivalve molluscs. Marine Biological Journal, 2022, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 3-16. URL: https://marine-biology.ru/mbj/article/view/348



Over the past decades, research on bivalve immune system is focused on studying the effect of environmental factors on the basal status of defense systems. The immune system of bivalves is greatly affected by abiotic factors, and the most significant ones are water temperature, salinity, and level of dissolved oxygen. Hypoxia is widespread in the coastal waters of the World Ocean since the 1950s. Hypoxic zones (with dissolved oxygen concentration < 0.5 mL O2·L−1) occur in shelf areas for a long time corresponding to the life cycle of many hydrobionts. Being benthic organisms, bivalve molluscs often experience reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations. This group of aquatic invertebrates both plays an important role in aquatic ecosystem functioning and is actively used in aquaculture. The efficiency of bivalve cultivation directly depends on its immune status determining resistance to diseases. The immune system of bivalve molluscs is based on a complex of nonspecific reactions of cellular and humoral components. Hemocytes circulating in the hemolymph are the key effectors of the cellular immune response which, along with the barrier tissues of molluscs, synthesize humoral factors with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The hemolymph of various bivalve species contains different cell types differing by size, morphology, and granulation of cytoplasm. Most bivalve species have 2 types of hemocytes – granular and agranular ones; those can be subdivided into morphotypes depending on number and color of granules, size of the nucleus, and presence of organelles in the cytoplasm. Granulocytes are considered the main immune cells that perform phagocytosis and (or) encapsulation of infectious agents, as well as their subsequent neutralization by releasing reactive oxygen species, lysing enzymes, and humoral antimicrobial proteins. Moreover, the complex of defense systems includes an antioxidant system which is closely related to mollusc immunity since it neutralizes reactive oxygen species releasing during cellular immune mechanism activation. An excess of these compounds damages mollusc cells by oxidizing proteins, cytoplasmic membrane lipids, and DNA. This article provides data on an oxygen deficiency effect on the cellular and humoral components of the immune system, as well as the tissue antioxidant complex of bivalve molluscs.


A. Y. Andreyeva

senior researcher, PhD



E. S. Kladchenko

junior researcher



O. L. Gostyukhina

senior researcher, PhD




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