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Hubareva E. S., Anninsky B. E. State of population of Calanus euxinus (Copepoda) in the open pelagial and on the shelf of the Black Sea near Crimea in autumn 2016. Marine Biological Journal, 2022, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 17-27. URL: https://marine-biology.ru/mbj/article/view/349

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Abstract

A copepod Calanus euxinus Hulsemann, 1991 is one of the most abundant mesozooplankton species constituting up to 60–80 % of planktonic crustacean biomass in the deeper Black Sea and being the main food component for small pelagic fish. Data on abundance, biomass, age structure, and lipid reserves of C. euxinus are required to estimate the state of its population in the open pelagial and on the shelf of the Black Sea. The data were obtained during the 89th cruise of the RV “Professor Vodyanitsky” (30.09.2016–09.10.2016) in the northwestern, central, and northeastern sea (62 stations). Zooplankton was sampled with a Bogorov–Rass net (mouth area of 0.5 m²; mesh size of 300 μm) by vertical net hauls from the seabed to the surface on the shelf and from the lower border of the oxygen zone to the surface in the deep-sea area. The samples were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde; in the laboratory, the abundance and biomass of all copepodite stages of C. euxinus were determined. Wax ester content in the bodies of late copepodite stages and adult specimens was estimated based on the specific oil sac volume (% of the body volume). The relationship between the quantitative species distribution and the habitat depth and macroscale hydrological circulation was revealed. In the deep-sea area, the mean abundance and biomass of C. euxinus amounted to (8.3 ± 0.8) thousand ind.·m−2 and (7.1 ± 0.7) g·m−2, respectively. On the outer shelf, the abundance and biomass of this species decreased twofold – down to (4.2 ± 1.4) thousand ind.·m−2 and (3.3 ± 1.2) g·m−2, respectively. In the deep-sea area, copepodites V, females, and males constituted 91 % of the total abundance and 96 % of the total biomass of the population. On the outer shelf, the ratio of these developmental stages reduced to 67 % and 86 % of the total abundance and biomass, respectively. In the deeper pelagial, the specific oil sac volumes in copepodites V, females, and males [(17.1 ± 0.6), (11.2 ± 0.8), and (11.9 ± 0.5) %, respectively] were twice as high as in the same developmental stages from the outer shelf [(8.1 ± 0.8), (4.7 ± 0.8), and (6.0 ± 0.5) %, respectively] indicating a relation between lipid accumulation in this species and hypoxic conditions of the biotope. Relatively high values of the abundance, biomass, and wax ester content in C. euxinus indicate that the population returned to its previous state – the one observed prior to expansion of alien ctenophores in the late 1980s and recent climatic changes resulting in a warming of the Black Sea basin.

Authors

E. S. Hubareva

researcher, PhD

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5787-8522

https://elibrary.ru/author_items.asp?id=934834

B. E. Anninsky

leading researcher, PhD

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9614-9392

https://elibrary.ru/author_profile.asp?id=260698

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