Prazukin A. V., Lee R. I., Balycheva D. S., Firsov Yu. K., Kholodov V. V. Cladophora (Chlorophyta) as an ecological engineer in hypersaline lake Chersonesskoye: Distribution of diatom algae in the structured space of plant mats. Marine Biological Journal, 2023, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 62-86. https://doi.org/10.21072/mbj.2023.08.3.05



The genus Cladophora is one of the largest genera of green algae, representatives of which are found in all water bodies throughout the world. Cladophora creates habitats for different groups of organisms, including epiphytic unicellular algae. The aim of the article is to examine the vertical distribution of diatoms in the structured space of Cladophora mats and in benthic sediments of a hypersaline lake in Crimea. In the vertical structure of the Cladophora mat, the floating and benthic mats were distinguished, each having a characteristic structure. The total of 20 diatom species of 12 genera were observed throughout this study. The total abundance of diatoms and their biomass on Cladophora (per unit of dry biomass) and in benthic sediments (per unit of dry mass) varied over a wide range. On Cladophora, the abundance varied from 1.85 × 106 to 69.52 × 106 cells·g−1, and the biomass, from 7.77 to 157.43 mg·g−1. In the bottom sediment, the abundance varied from 6.05 × 106 to 16.87 × 106 cells·g−1, and the biomass, from 7.76 to 36.39 mg·g−1. The share of the diatom biomass in the wet mass of the entire Cladophora mat averaged 1.06%.


A. V. Prazukin

leading researcher, D. Sc.



R. I. Lee




D. S. Balycheva

senior researcher, PhD



Yu. K. Firsov

senior researcher, PhD



V. V. Kholodov

leading engineer




AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway / M. D. Guiry, G. M. Guiry (Eds) : [site], 2020. URL: http://www.algaebase.org [accessed: 29.08.2020].

Anufriieva E. V. How can saline and hypersaline lakes contribute to aquaculture development? A review. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2018, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 2002–2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-018-7306-3

Bergey E. A., Boettiger C. A., Resh V. H. Effects of water velocity on the architecture and epiphytes of Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology, 1995, vol. 31, iss. 2, pp. 264–271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1995.00264.x

Bootsma H. A., Young E. B., Berges J. A. Temporal and spatial patterns of Cladophora biomass and nutrient stoichiometry in Lake Michigan. In: Cladophora Research and Management in the Great Lakes : proceedings of a workshop held at the Great Lakes WATER Institute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 8, 2004. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA : [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee], 2004, pp. 81–88.

Diatomovyi analiz. Kniga 2: Opredelitel’ iskopaemykh i sovremennykh diatomovykh vodoroslei. Poryadki Centrales i Mediales. Moscow : Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo geologicheskoi literatury, 1949, 238 p., [206] p. tabl. (in Russ.)

Diatomovyi analiz. Kniga 3: Opredelitel’ iskopaemykh i sovremennykh diatomovykh vodoroslei. Poryadok Pennales. Moscow : Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo geologicheskoi literatury, 1950, 398 p., [220] p. tabl. (in Russ.)

Diatoms of the USSR. Fossils and Modern. Vol. 2, iss. 2 / I. V. Makarov (Ed.). St. Petersburg : Nauka, 1992, 125 p. (in Russ.)

Dodds W. K., Gudder D. A. The ecology of Cladophora. Journal of Phycology, 1992, vol. 28, iss. 4, pp. 415–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1992.00415.x

Eiseltová M., Pokorný J. Filamentous algae in fish ponds of the Třeboň Biosphere Reserve–ecophysiological study. Vegetatio, 1994, vol. 113, iss. 2, pp. 155–170. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00044232

Furey P. C., Lowe R. L., Power M. E., Campbell-Craven A. M. Midges, Cladophora, and epiphytes: Shifting interactions through succession. Freshwater Science, 2012, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 93–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/11-021.1

Goldsborough L. G., Robinson G. G. C. Pattern in wetlands. In: Algal Ecology: Freshwater Benthic Ecosystems / R. J. Stevenson, M. L. Bothwell, R. L. Lowe (Eds). San Diego, CA : Academic Press, 1996, pp. 77–117.

Gubanov V. I., Bobko N. I. Hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics in the hypersalt Lake Krugloe (Crimea, Cape Hersones). Morskoj ekologicheskij zhurnal, 2012, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 18–26. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/1241

Gubelit Yu. I., Berezina N. A. The causes and consequences of algal blooms: The Cladophora glomerata bloom and the Neva estuary (eastern Baltic Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2010, vol. 61, iss. 4–6, pp. 183–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.02.013

Guslyakov N. E., Zakordonets O. A., Gerasimyuk V. P. Atlas diatomovykh vodoroslei bentosa severo-zapadnoi chasti Chernogo morya i prilegayushchikh vodoemov. Kyiv : Naukova dumka, 1992, 112 p., [140] p. tabl. (in Russ.)

Hardwick G. G., Blinn D. W., Usher H. D. Epiphytic diatoms on Cladophora glomerata in the Colorado River, Arizona: Longitudinal and vertical distribution in a regulated river. The Southwestern Naturalist, 1992, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 148–156. https://doi.org/10.2307/3671663

Higgins S. N., Malkin S. Y., Todd Howell E., Guildford S. J., Campbell L., Hiriart‐Baer V., Hecky R. E. An ecological review of Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Journal of Phycology, 2008, vol. 44, iss. 4, pp. 839–854. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00538.x

Ibelings B. W., Mur L. R. Microprofiles of photosynthesis and oxygen concentration in Microcystis sp. scums. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 1992, vol. 86, iss. 3, pp. 195–203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1992.tb04810.x

Ivanova M. B., Balushkina E. V., Basova S. L. Structural-functional reorganization of ecosystem of hyperhaline Lake Saki (Crimea) at increased salinity. Russian Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 1994, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 111–126. (in Russ.)

Jiang H., Qiu B. Photosynthetic adaptation of a bloom‐forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) to prolonged UV‐B exposure. Journal of Phycology, 2005, vol. 41, iss. 5, pp. 983–992. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00126.x

Jones C. G., Lawton J. H., Shachak M. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos, 1994, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 373–386. https://doi.org/10.2307/3545850

Kiselev I. A. Metody issledovaniya planktona. In: Zhizn’ presnykh vod SSSR. Moscow ; Leningrad : Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1956, vol. 4, pt 1, pp. 183–265. (in Russ.)

Krause-Jensen D., McGlathery K., Rysgaard S., Christensen P. B. Production within dense mats of the filamentous macroalga Chaetomorpha linum in relation to light and nutrient availability. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1996, vol. 134, pp. 207–216. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps134207

Kühl M., Jørgensen B. B. Spectral light measurements in microbenthic phototrophic communities with a fiber‐optic microprobe coupled to a sensitive diode array detector. Limnology and Oceanography, 1992, vol. 37, iss. 8, pp. 1813–1823. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1992.37.8.1813

Lange-Bertalot H. Navicula sensu stricto, 10 genera separated from Navicula sensu lato. Frustulia. Ruggell : A. R. G. Cantner Verlag K. G., 2001, 526 p. : 140 plts. (Diatoms of Europe: Diatoms of the European Inland Waters and Comparable Habitats / H. Lange-Bertalot (Ed.) ; vol. 2).

Malkin S. Y., Sorichetti R. J., Wiklund J. A., Hecky R. E. Seasonal abundance, community composition, and silica content of diatoms epiphytic on Cladophora glomerata. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 2009, vol. 35, iss. 2, pp. 199–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2008.12.008

Marks J. C., Power M. E. Nutrient induced changes in the species composition of epiphytes on Cladophora glomerata Kütz. (Chlorophyta). Hydrobiologia, 2001, vol. 450, iss. 1–3, pp. 187–196. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017596927664

Messyasz B., Leska B., Fabrowska J., Pikosz M., Roj E., Cieslak A., Schroeder G. Biomass of freshwater Cladophora as a raw material for agriculture and the cosmetic industry. Open Chemistry, 2015, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 1108–1118. https://doi.org/10.1515/chem-2015-0124

Mpawenayo B., Mathooko J. M. The structure of diatom assemblages associated with Cladophora and sediments in a highland stream in Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 2005, vol. 544, iss. 1, pp. 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-8333-y

Mukhanov V. S., Naidanova O. G., Shadrin N. V., Kemp R. B. The spring energy budget of the algal mat community in a Crimean hypersaline lake determined by microcalorimetry. Aquatic Ecology, 2004, vol. 38, iss. 3, pp. 375–385. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AECO.0000035169.08581.10

Nevrova E. L., Petrov A. N. Taksonomicheskoe raznoobrazie diatomovykh bentosa Chernogo morya. In: The Black Sea Microalgae: Problems of Biodiversity Preservation and Biotechnological Usage / Yu. N. Tokarev, Z. Z. Finenko, N. V. Shadrin (Eds) ; NAS of Ukraine, Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas. Sevastopol : EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2008, pp. 60–84. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/5521

Nevrova E. L., Shadrin N. V. Donnye diatomovye vodorosli gipersolenykh vodoemov Kryma. In: The Black Sea Microalgae: Problems of Biodiversity Preservation and Biotechnological Usage / Yu. N. Tokarev, Z. Z. Finenko, N. V. Shadrin (Eds) ; NAS of Ukraine, Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas. Sevastopol : EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2008, pp. 112–118. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/5521

Oxiyuk O. P., Yurchenko V. V. On the weight of the diatomeae algae. Gidrobiologicheskii zhurnal, 1971, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 116–119. (in Russ.)

O’Neal S. W., Lembi C. A. Effect of simazine on photosynthesis and growth of filamentous algae. Weed Science, 1983, vol. 31, iss. 6, pp. 899–903. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500070958

Pavlovskaya T. M., Prazukin A. V., Shadrin N. V. Seasonal phenomena in Infusoria community in hypersaline lake Khersonesskoye (Crimea). Morskoj ekologicheskij zhurnal, 2009, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 53–63. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/1009

Prazukin A. V. Ecological Phytosystemology. Moscow : “Pero” Publishers, 2015, 375 p. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/1358

Prazukin A. V., Anufriieva E. V., Shadrin N. V. Cladophora mats in a Crimean hypersaline lake: Structure, dynamics, and inhabiting animals. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2018, vol. 36, iss. 6, pp. 1930–1940. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-018-7313-4

Prazukin A. V., Anufriieva E. V., Shadrin N. V. Photosynthetic activity of green filamentous algae mats in the hypersaline lake Chersonesskoye (Crimea). Vestnik Tverskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: biologiya i ekologiya, 2019, no. 2 (54), pp. 87–102. (in Russ.). https://doi.org/10.26456/vtbio74

Prazukin A. V., Anufriieva E. V., Shadrin N. V. Is biomass of filamentous green algae Cladophora spp. (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae) an unlimited cheap and valuable resource for medicine and pharmacology? A review. Reviews in Aquaculture, 2020, vol. 12, iss. 4, pp. 2493–2510. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12454

Prazukin A. V., Bobkova A. N., Evstigneeva I. K., Tankovska I. N., Shadrin N. V. Structure and seasonal dynamics of the phytocomponent of the bioinert system marine hypersaline lake on cape of Chersonesus (Crimea). Morskoj ekologicheskij zhurnal, 2008, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 61–79. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/945

Prazukin A. V., Firsov Yu. K., Gureeva E. V., Kapranov S. V., Zheleznova S. N., Maoka T., Nekhoroshev M. V. Biomass of green filamentous alga Cladophora (Chlorophyta) from a hypersaline lake in Crimea as a prospective source of lutein and other pigments. Algal Research, 2021a, vol. 54, art. no. 102195 (9 p.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2021.102195

Prazukin A., Shadrin N., Balycheva D., Firsov Yu., Lee R., Anufriieva E. Cladophora spp. (Chlorophyta) modulate environment and create a habitat for microalgae in hypersaline waters. European Journal of Phycology, 2021b, vol. 56, iss. 3, pp. 231–243. https://doi.org/10.1080/09670262.2020.1814423

Proshkina-Lavrenko A. I. Diatomovye vodorosli bentosa Chernogo morya. Moscow ; Leningrad : Nauka, 1963, 243 p. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/12747

Ryabushko L. I. Microphytobenthos of the Black Sea. Sevastopol : EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2013, 416 p. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/8301

Ryabushko L. I., Balicheva D. S., Strijak A. V. Diatoms epiphyton of some green algae and periphyton of anthropogenic substrates of the Crimean coastal of the Black Sea. Algologia, 2013, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 419–437.

Senicheva M. I., Gubelit Yu. I., Prazukin A. V., Shadrin N. V. Fitoplankton gipersolenykh ozer Kryma ; Tablitsa 4. Vidovoi sostav fitoplanktona gipersolenykh ozer Kryma. In: The Black Sea Microalgae: Problems of Biodiversity Preservation and Biotechnological Usage / Yu. N. Tokarev, Z. Z. Finenko, N. V. Shadrin (Eds) ; NAS of Ukraine, Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas. Sevastopol : EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2008, pp. 93–100, 163–165. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/5521

Shadrin N. V., Anufriieva E. V. Ecosystems of hypersaline waters: Structure and trophic relations. Zhurnal obshchei biologii, 2018, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 418–427. (in Russ.). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0044459618060076

Shadrin N. V., Anufriieva E. V., Belyakov V. P., Bazhora A. I. Chironomidae larvae in hypersaline waters of the Crimea: Diversity, distribution, abundance and production. The European Zoological Journal, 2017, vol. 84, iss. 1, pp. 61–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250003.2016.1273974

Shadrin N. V., Mikhodyuk O. S., Naidanova O. G., Voloshko L. N., Gerasimenko L. M. Donnye tsianobakterii gipersolenykh ozer Kryma. In: The Black Sea Microalgae: Problems of Biodiversity Preservation and Biotechnological Usage / Yu. N. Tokarev, Z. Z. Finenko, N. V. Shadrin (Eds) ; NAS of Ukraine, Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas. Sevastopol : EKOSI-Gidrofizika, 2008, pp. 100–112. (in Russ.). https://repository.marine-research.ru/handle/299011/5521

Stevenson R. J., Stoermer E. F. Seasonal abundance patterns of diatoms on Cladophora in Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 1982, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0380-1330(82)71955-0

Semkin B. I. On the relation between mean values of two measures of inclusion and measures of similarity. Byulleten’ Botanicheskogo sada DVO RAN, 2009, iss. 3, pp. 91–101. (in Russ.)

Vodorosli : spravochnik / S. P. Vasser (Ed.). Kyiv : Naukova dumka, 1989, 608 p. (in Russ.)

Witkowski A., Lange-Bertalot H., Metzeltin D. Diatom Flora of Marine Coasts. 1. Ruggell ; Königstein : Gantner Verlag : Koeltz Scientific Books, 2000, 925 p. (Iconographia Diatomologica : Annotated Diatom Micrographs ; vol. 7: Diversity-Taxonomy-Identification / H. Lange-Bertalot (Ed.))

Young E. B., Tucker R. C., Pansch L. A. Alkaline phosphatase in freshwater Cladophora-epiphyte assemblages: Regulation in response to phosphorus supply and localization. Journal of Phycology, 2010, vol. 46, iss. 1, pp. 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00782.x

Zulkifly S. B., Graham J. M., Young E. B., Mayer R. J., Piotrowski M. J., Smith I., Graham L. E. The genus Cladophora Kützing (Ulvophyceae) as a globally distributed ecological engineer. Journal of Phycology, 2013, vol. 49, iss. 1, pp. 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12025

Zulkifly S., Hanshew A., Young E. B., Lee Ph., Graham M. E., Graham M. E., Piotrowski M., Graham L. E. The epiphytic microbiota of the globally widespread macroalga Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales). American Journal of Botany, 2012, vol. 99, iss. 9, pp. 1541–1552. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1200161


Field work, sample processing, data analysis, and this manuscript writing were supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant No. 18-16-00001 for Aleksander Prazukin and Daria Balycheva). The study of the diatom species composition was carried out within the framework of IBSS state research assignment No. 121041500203-3, 121030300149-0, and 121041400077-1.



Download data is not yet available.