The Conference was held on 19–24 September 2016 in Sevastopol. More than 220 scientists from 52 scientific and educational organizations from the far corners of the scientific community of Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Turkey took part in the Conference. The total number of participants with degree of DrSci was 41 persons, PhD – 123 ones. The researchers have discussed a lot of questions concerning the history of marine biological research, on biology and ecology of aquatic organisms, ecological bio-energetics, biochemistry and genetics of aquatic organisms, problems of assessment of marine biodiversity and of its conservation; functioning, approaches to evaluation of productivity and dynamics of marine ecosystems, influence of environmental factors and anthropogenic impact. Besides, the problems of radioecology, pollution and the bio-indication of water quality; rational use of natural resources, marine and terrestrial protected areas; marine biological resources, biotechnology and aquaculture were considered. On the basis of reports submitted to the Conference the three volumes of Proceedings were prepared.